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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical to Tropical Mountains.

[FZ]

Primulaceae, F. K. Kupicha. Flora Zambesiaca 7:1. 1983

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herbs or very rarely shrubs, prostrate or erect.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, opposite or verticillate, entire.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers axillary or in spike–like racemes or panicles.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx more or less deeply 5–6–lobed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla rotate–or campanulate, white or yellow or rarely (as in F.Z. species) pink to purple, 5–6–lobed, the segments contorted, entire or dentate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium
Stamens equalling petals, epipetalous and oppositipetalous, often alternating with staminodes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary superior, ovoid or globose; style slender, with terminal stigma.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule usually dehiscing at apex by 5 valves, few–many–seeded.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds various, usually angular.

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Procumbent or erect, mostly perennial herbs or rarely subshrubs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, opposite or verticillate, entire, often glandular
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers axillary or in spikes, racemes, corymbs or panicles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx ± deeply 5–6-lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla ± campanulate, 5–6-lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary globose, style filiform
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 5–6, ± adnate to corolla, sometimes alternating with staminodes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule ovoid or globose, 5-valved, few- or many-seeded
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds oblong, orbicular or angular, sometimes winged.
Distribution
Distributed from Europe east to the Far East and Eastern Asia, south through tropical Asia to Australia; Africa including Azores, Madagascar and Mascarenes; Hawai’ian Is., North America.
Note
Lysimachia (from Gr. λύσις, lysis, release and μάχη, machi, (from) strife, or to commemorate King Lysimachus (c. 360–281 BCE)).

[FTEA]

Primulaceae, P. Taylor. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1958

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herbs or rarely shrubs, prostrate or erect
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, opposite or verticillate, entire
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary, axillary, racemose or paniculate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx more or less deeply 5–6-lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla rotate or subcampanulate, 5–6-lobed, white, yellow or rarely (as in the tropical African species) pink or purple
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens inserted on the corolla-tube; staminodes often present and alternating with them
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary globose or ovoid; style filiform
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule dehiscing by 5 valves, few- to many-seeded
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds various, usually angular.

[FTEA]

Primulaceae, P. Taylor. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1958

Morphology General Habit
Glabrous annual or perennial herbs, erect or prostrate and rooting at the nodes
Morphology Leaves
Leaves sessile or subpetiolate, alternate or opposite, capillary to orbicular, entire
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers small, pedicellate or rarely sessile, solitary and axillary or in terminal or subterminal racemes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-segments 5 (rarely 4 or 6), lanceolate; margins aften hyaline
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla hypocrateriform to subcampanulate; lobes 5 (rarely 4 or 6), 1/2 to almost the length of the corolla, rounded or acuminate, sometimes glandular-ciliate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Filaments ± connate at the base (sometimes very shortly) all, or the lower part of, the connate part adnate to the corolla-tube, the free part often bearded with multi-cellular hairs; anthers ovoid or oblong, obtuse or acute
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary globose, glabrous or covered with granular glands
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule globose or obovoid, indehiscent or circumscissile
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 3-angled or globose, smooth or minutely papillose, 1–many.

[FZ]

Primulaceae, F. K. Kupicha. Flora Zambesiaca 7:1. 1983

Morphology General Habit
Glabrous annual and perennial herbs; stems erect or prostrate and rooting at the nodes.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves sessile or subpetiolate, alternate or opposite, elliptic to suborbicular or rarely capillary, entire.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers small, 5(6)–merous, pedicellate or rarely sessile, solitary in leaf axils or in terminal racemes.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx gamosepalous, divided almost to the base; segments often with hyaline margins.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla subcampanulate; lobes shortly connate at the base, usually white or pale pink, rarely (in F.Z. area) bright blue or red.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 5, oppositipetalous and epipetalous, adnate to the base of the corolla; filaments free or connate into a short tube, often bearded with multicellular hairs; anthers basifixed, introrse, ± square to oblong.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary globose, 5–carpelled, unilocular, with terminal simple terete style and capitate stigma; placentation free–central.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit globose or obovoid, circumscissile or indehiscent, 1– or many–seeded.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ellipsoid, 3–angled, dark brown, papillose.

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Glabrous annual or perennial herbs
Morphology Stem
Stems erect or prostrate and rooting at nodes
Morphology Leaves
Leaves sessile or shortly petiolate, alternate or opposite, capillary to orbicular, entire
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary and axillary or in terminal racemes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx deeply (4–)5(–6)-lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla ± deeply (4–)5(–6)-lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Filaments
Filaments ± connate at base, often bearded
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary often with granular glands
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule globose, indehiscent and 1-seeded or usually circumscissile and many-seeded
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds usually 3-angled.
Distribution
A largely Mediterranean and tropical African genus with the following species also throughout the cooler parts of the world as a weed of cultivation.
Note
Anagallis (from Gr. αναγαλλις, anagallis, Pimpernel).

[FTEA]

Primulaceae, P. Taylor. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1958

Morphology General Habit
Glabrous annual herbs; stems erect, simple or usually much branched
Morphology Leaves
Leaves sessile, opposite, lanceolate or ovate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers solitary, axillary, pedicellate, erect at anthesis, strongly recurved in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx deeply 5-lobed; lobes lanceolate, acute
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla rotate-campanulate, 5-lobed, minute; lobes orbicular or elliptic, much shorter than the calyx
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens inserted at the base of the corolla, shorter than the corolla-lobes; filaments filiform; anthers globose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary globose; style filiform
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule globose, dehiscing by 5 valves, 2–many-seeded
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 3-angled.

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Glabrous annual herbs
Morphology Stem
Stems erect, simple or branched
Morphology Leaves
Leaves sessile, opposite, lanceolate or ovate, entire
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers axillary, solitary, pedicellate, erect at anthesis, strongly recurved in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx deeply 5-lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla 5-lobed, lobes much shorter than calyx, white or yellow
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule globose, dehiscing by 5 valves
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 2-many, tuberculate.
Distribution
A genus of two species; Mediterranean region to Krim, Caucasus and Iran; in Africa, south to Tanzania.
Note
Asterolinon (from Gr. αστέρι, asteri, star, λινον, linon, flax).

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Algeria, Altay, Amur, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Falkland Is., Finland, Florida, France, Free State, Føroyar, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf States, Hainan, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kazan-retto, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Labrador, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Magadan, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, Nigeria, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Selvagens, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Sahara, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Yukon, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Antipodean Is., Ascension, Bermuda, Chatham Is., Crozet Is., Easter Is., Greenland, Haiti, Juan Fernández Is., Kermadec Is., Mauritius, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Norfolk Is., Puerto Rico, St.Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Western Australia

Lysimachia Tourn. ex L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Rico, L. [1821], Tunisia Anagallis K000296117
Rico, L. [1834], Tunisia Anagallis K000296017
Rico, L. [1798], Armenia Anagallis K000297301
Rico, L. [1799], Armenia Anagallis K000661663

First published in Sp. Pl.: 146 (1753)

Literature

Flora of Iraq

  • Kunth, Pflanzenr. 4, 237: 256 (1905)
  • Linnaeus, Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 72 (1754);
  • Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. ed. 1, 146 (1753);

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • P. Taylor in Kew Bull. 13: 142 (1958).
  • Pax & Knuth in Engl. Pflanzenr. 4, 237, Primulac.: 256 (1905)
  • —F.T.A. 3: 489

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Sp. Pl. 1: 147 (1753).

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • L., Gen. Pl. ed. 5 : 72 (1754)
  • Sp. Pl. : 146 (1753)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Iraq
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0